Remote experiments for STEM education and engagement in rural schools: The case of project R3

Diego Casado-Mansilla, Javier García-Zubia, Jordi Cuadros, Vanessa Serrano, Daniela Fadda, y. Veronica Canivell

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


Rural schools tend not to have enough laboratory and experimentation equipment, which can be an obstacle that hinders student learning in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas. Moreover, this loss of competencies can reduce their employment opportunities while society itself is deprived of that human capital. Remote laboratories have emerged as a way of countering the effects of insufficient investment in equipment or the inability to acquire the latter. By way of example, the goal of Project R3, which is presented in this article, is to reduce the absence or shortage of laboratories in the rural world via the use of remote experimentation. Specifically, this article presents the experience, the results, and the main conclusions of Project R3 during its first year of life. It is worth noting that Project R3 has been deployed not only in rural but also in urban environments, making it possible to compare learning results and satisfaction levels for students in both spheres and identify those experiments that provide the best learning experience and are most popular among pupils and teachers. The main objective is that from the local analysis (the Project has only been conducted in Spain) it might be possible to draw conclusions of a global nature that might be extrapolated to other countries in the European Union with similar socio-demographics. Initial results are in the direction of certifying that student achievement and satisfaction are higher in rural than in urban environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102404
JournalTechnology in Society
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • Remote experimentation
  • Rural education
  • Rural schools
  • STEM education


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