Prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated factors in nursing homes: a multicentre cross-sectional study

Javier Jerez-Roig, Pau Farrés-Godayol, Meltem Yildirim, Anna Escribà-Salvans, Pau Moreno-Martin, Ester Goutan-Roura, Sandra Rierola-Fochs, Montse Romero-Mas, Joanne Booth, Dawn A. Skelton, Maria Giné-Garriga, Eduard Minobes-Molina

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common geriatric syndrome with high health and socio-economic impacts in nursing home (NH) residents. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and types of UI and its associated factors in older people living in NHs in Central Catalonia (Spain). We also determined the proportion of residents who were receiving behavioural strategies to prevent/manage UI. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in 5 NHs conducted from January to March 2020. Methods: We included consenting residents aged 65 + permanently living in the NHs. Residents who were hospitalized, in a coma or palliative care were excluded. UI was assessed using Section H of the Minimum Data Set. Sociodemographic and health-related variables were examined. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were performed. Results: We included 132 subjects (82.6% women), mean age of 85.2 (SD = 7.4) years. The prevalence of UI was 76.5% (95% CI: 68.60-82.93). The most common type was functional UI (45.5%), followed by urgency UI (11.4%). Only 46.2% of residents received at least one behavioural strategy to manage UI. Most sedentary behaviour (SB) variables presented a p-value lower than 0.001 in the bivariate analyses, but none remained in the final model. Moderate-severe cognitive impairment (OR = 4.44, p =.003), anticholinergic activity (OR = 3.50, p =.004) and risk of sarcopenia using SARC-F (OR = 2.75, p =.041) were associated with UI. Conclusions: The prevalence of UI was high in this sample of NH residents compared to the literature, yet less than half received prompted voiding as a strategy to prevent/reduce UI.UI was associated with cognitive impairment, anticholinergic activity, and risk of sarcopenia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • Aged
  • Associated factors
  • Nursing homes
  • Older people
  • Prevalence
  • Urinary incontinence


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