Clinical utility and implementation of pharmacogenomics for the personalisation of antipsychotic treatments

Marta Hernández Hernández, Natalia Cullell, Marc Cendros, Alexandre Serra-Llovich, Maria J. Arranz

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


Decades of pharmacogenetic research have revealed genetic biomarkers of clinical response to antipsychotics. Genetic variants in antipsychotic targets, dopamine and serotonin receptors in particular, and in metabolic enzymes have been associated with the efficacy and toxicity of antipsychotic treatments. However, genetic prediction of antipsychotic response based on these biomarkers is far from accurate. Despite the clinical validity of these findings, the clinical utility remains unclear. Nevertheless, genetic information on CYP metabolic enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of most commercially available antipsychotics has proven to be effective for the personalisation of clinical dosing, resulting in a reduction of induced side effects and in an increase in efficacy. However, pharmacogenetic information is rarely used in psychiatric settings as a prescription aid. Lack of studies on cost-effectiveness, absence of clinical guidelines based on pharmacogenetic biomarkers for several commonly used antipsychotics, the cost of genetic testing and the delay in results delivery hamper the implementation of pharmacogenetic interventions in clinical settings. This narrative review will comment on the existing pharmacogenetic information, the clinical utility of pharmacogenetic findings, and their current and future implementations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number244
Number of pages23
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2024


  • antipsychotics
  • clinical implementation
  • genetic testing
  • pharmacogenetics
  • pharmacogenomics


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