Limited research examines short-haul and long-haul travelers' intentions to visit an emerging vacation destination in South America. To fill this gap, this research investigates intentions of potential travelers from two short-haul (Peru and Brazil) and two long-haul (Spain and Germany) markets to visit Chile as a vacation destination. The authors develop a conceptual model that expands upon the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework by incorporating self-concept theory and destination familiarity. The data were collected by applying an online questionnaire to respondents in four countries. Hypotheses are tested with structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. The results verify that the extended TPB model has good explanatory power and that destination familiarity and self-concept, in particular the ideal social self, help to differentiate what drives short and long-haul travelers' intentions to visit Chile. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norms are the strongest predictors of both short and long-haul travelers’ intentions to visit Chile for vacation.