Over the last 20 years, the number of pathogenic multi-resistant microorganisms has grown steadily, which has stimulated the search for new strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), also called photodynamic inactivation, is emerging as a promising alternative to treatments based on conventional antibiotics. We have explored the effectiveness of methylene blue-loaded targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) in the photodynamic inactivation of two Gram negative bacteria, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For E. coli, nanoparticle association clearly reduced the dark toxicity of MB while preserving its photoinactivation activity. For P. aeruginosa, a remarkable difference was observed between amino- and mannose-decorated nanoparticles. The details of singlet oxygen production in the nanoparticles have been characterized, revealing the presence of two populations of this cytotoxic species. Strong quenching of singlet oxygen within the nanoparticles is observed.