This study reports the consumption data for 132 anticancer drugs in Catalonia (NE Spain) during the period of 2013–2017 and calculates the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in wastewater effluents and rivers. This long-term analysis can determine the evolution of drugs present in the environment according to prescriptions and serve as an adequate tool to determine their presence and impact. Data showed that out of 132 compounds prescribed, 77 reached wastewater effluents, which accounted for the most consumed, those excreted in the highest doses, and the least biodegradable. Once diluted in receiving river waters, only mycophenolic acid and hydroxycar-bamide had PEC values higher than 10 ng L−1, which is the value set by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to carry out further risk assessment. It was also observed that compounds present in river water are those that can pose a high risk, given their persistence and capability to bioaccumulate. Therefore, this study shows that the estimation of PEC, together with physico-chemical properties of detected compounds, is a useful tool to determine the long-term presence and fate of this new class of emerging contaminants.