Geomagnetic solar flare effects: A review

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Solar flare effects (Sfe) are rapid variations in the Earth's magnetic field and are related to the enhancement of the amount of radiation produced during Solar flare events. They mainly appear in the Earth's sunlit hemisphere at the same time as the flare observation and have a crochet-like shape. Much progress has been made since Carrington's first observations in 1859 which are considered to represent the first direct evidence of the connection between the Sun and the Earth's environment but there is still much to discover. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art developments and the advances made in the knowledge concerning Sfe phenomena while also looking at the challenges that lie ahead. First, we offer a historical approach with a comprehensive description that allows for a better understanding of the main characteristics of Sfe. This frames specific topics like the puzzling reversed-Sfe or the nighttime Sfe. The role played by the Service of Rapid Magnetic variations (SRMV) is also assessed, followed by a discussion of the main current limiting factors in the process of detection and proposed ways to overcome challenges such as by creating an automatic detection method. The paper clarifies some aspects related to the geo-effectiveness of the solar flares producing magnetic disturbances. The importance of the global modelling studies covering critical aspects needed to understand this Sun-Earth system is assessed. Also, we provide an overview of the temporal evolution of the electric currents producing Sfe. The importance of key subjects such as the dynamic aspects of Sfe is developed in another section. Finally, estimations of the size of large flares using ionospheric and magnetic data are reviewed as well as the prospects of these large flare events putting technological systems in danger.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’article2020027
RevistaJournal of Space Weather and Space Climate
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 2020


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