Daphnia magna an emerging environmental model of neuro and cardiotoxicity of illicit drugs.

Marina Bellot, Fernando Soria, Raul López-Arnau, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Carlos Barata

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Cocaine, methamphetamine, ectasy (3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDMA)) and ketamine are among the most consumed drugs worldwide causing cognitive, oxidative stress and cardiovascular problems in humans. Residue levels of these drugs and their transformation products may still enter the aquatic environment, where concentrations up to hundreds of ng/L have been measured. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that psychotropic effects and the mode of action of these drugs in D. magna cognitive, oxidative stress and cardiovascular responses are equivalent to those reported in humans and other vertebrate models. Accordingly we expose D. magna juveniles to pharmacological and environmental relevant concentrations. The study was complemented with the measurement of the main neurotransmitters involved in the known mechanisms of action of these drugs in mammals and physiological relevant amino acids. Behavioural cognitive patters clearly differentiate the 3 psychostimulant drugs (methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA) from the dissociative one ketamine. Psychostimulant drugs at pharmacological doses (10–200 μM), increased basal locomotion activities and responses to light, and decreased habituation to it. Ketamine only increased habituation to light. The four drugs enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in a concentration related manner, and at moderate concentrations (10–60 μM) increased heartbeats, diminishing them at high doses (200 μM). In chronic exposures to environmental low concentrations (10–1000 ng/L) the four drugs did not affect any of the behavioural responses measured but methamphetamine and cocaine inhibited reproduction at 10 ng/L. Observed effects on neurotransmitters and related metabolites were in concern with reported responses in mammalian and other vertebrate models: cocaine and MDMA enhanced dopamine and serotonin levels, respectively, methamphetamine and MDMA decreased dopamine and octopamine, and all but MDMA decreased 3 MT levels. Drug effects on the concentration of up to 10 amino acids evidence disruptive effects on neurotransmitter synthesis, the urea cycle, lipid metabolism and cardiac function.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’article123355
RevistaEnvironmental Pollution
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 1 de març 2024


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