Emergency situations such as wildfires, water floods, or even terrorist attacks require continuous communication between the coordination centres, the several on-the-field teams, and their respective devices to properly address the adverse circumstances. From a technological point of view, this can be best seen as a live Ubiquitous Sensor Network—composed of human beings (e.g., first responders, victims) and devices (e.g., drones, environmental sensors, radios)—with stringent and special communication requirements in terms of flexibility, mobility, reliability, bandwidth, hetero-geneity, and speed of deployment. However, for this specific use case, most of the already deployed and well-known communication technologies (e.g., satellite, 4G/5G) might become unusable and hard to repair due to the associated effects of the disaster itself. The purpose of this paper is (1) to review the emergency communications challenges, (2) to analyse the existing surveys on technologies for emergency situations, (3) to conduct a more updated, extensive, and systematic review of the emergency communications’ technologies, and (4) to propose a heterogeneous communication architecture able to communicate between moving agents in harsh conditions. The proposed approach is conceived to link the relocating agents that constitute a Ubiquitous Sensor Network spanning a large-scale area (i.e., hundreds of square kilometres) by combining Near Vertical Incidence Skywave technologies with Drone-Based Wireless Mesh Networks. The conclusions derived from this research aim to set up the fundamentals of a rapidly deployable Emergency Communications System inspired by the Ubiquitous Sensor Network paradigm.