Size control is a fundamental question in biology, showing incremental complexity in plants, whose cells possess a rigid cell wall. The phytohormone auxin is a vital growth regulator with central importance for differential growth control. Our results indicate that auxin-reliant growth programs affect the molecular complexity of xyloglucans, the major type of cell wall hemi-cellulose in eudicots. Auxin-dependent induction and repression of growth coincide with reduced and enhanced molecular complexity of xyloglucans, respectively. In agreement with a proposed function in growth control, genetic interference with xyloglucan side decorations distinctly modulates auxin-dependent differential growth rates. Our work proposes that auxin-dependent growth programs have a spatially defined effect on xyloglucan’s molecular structure, which in turn affects cell wall mechanics and specifies differential, gravitropic hypocotyl growth.