Bronchiectasis is a chronic structural disease associated with exacerbations that provoke systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the systemic acute proinflammatory cytokine and its biomarker profiles during and after exacerbations and its relationship with the severity of episode, microbiological findings, and the bronchiectasis severity index. This prospective observational study compared exacerbation and stable groups. Cytokine (interleukins (IL)-17a, IL-1β, IL-6, IL 8; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (α)) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined by multiplex analysis on days 1, 5, 30, and 60 in the exacerbation group and on day 1 in the stable group. We recruited 165 patients with exacerbations, of which 93 were severe (hospitalized). Proinflammatory systemic IL-17a, IL-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels increased similarly on days 1 and 5 in severe and non-severe episodes, but on day 30, IL-17a, IL-8, and IL-6 levels were only increased for severe exacerbations. The highest IL-17a level occurred in patients with chronic plus the acute isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At 30 days, severe exacerbations were independently associated with higher levels of IL-17 (Odds ratio (OR) 4.58), IL-6 (OR 4.89), IL-8 (OR 3.08), and hsCRP (OR 6.7), adjusted for age, the bronchiectasis severity index, and treatment duration. Exacerbations in patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection were associated with an increase in IL-17 and IL-6 at 30 days (ORs 7.47 and 3.44, respectively). Severe exacerbations elicit a higher systemic proinflammatory response that is sustained to day 30. Patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection had impaired IL-17a reduction. IL-17a could be a useful target for measuring systemic inflammation.