Most potential drugs for the treatment of central nervous system disorders do not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Much research effort has been devoted to the discovery of new BBB-shuttle peptides—most of which have been identified by phage display. Here we report for the first time on the use of phage display against a human BBB cellular model which mimics the characteristics of the BBB. From the panning experiment of a 12-mer library, the SGVYKVAYDWQH (SGV) peptide sequence was selected and its permeability validated in the aforementioned model. Furthermore, internalization studies suggested that SGV internalizes through a clathrin-mediated mechanism and that it increases the uptake of a cargo in endothelial cells. These results highlight the usefulness of in vitro BBB models for the discovery of BBB-shuttle peptides through phage display libraries.