The first chapter of the book presents triple bottom line and sustainable operations strategies, analysing the academic and practitioners’ literatures. First, an operational definition of triple bottom line is proposed. Then, sustainable operations strategies are described in terms of content: priorities, programmes and performance. Both improvements and possible trade-offs related to sustainable operations strategies are described. This evidence suggests the need to consider human resource management and organisational practices to overcome trade-offs and enable effective sustainable operations strategy definition and implementation.