Study design:Time series design.Objectives:To determine the effects of a shoulder resistance training programme on isokinetic and isometric strength, body composition, pain and functionality in paraplegic subjects.Setting: University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.Methods:A total of 15 subjects with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) performed three testing sessions with an 8-week period between the sessions. Subjects were not disturbed between the first and the second testing sessions. Subjects performed an 8-week resistance training programme after the second testing session. Variations in isometric and isokinetic shoulder muscle strength, body composition, reported pain and shoulder functionality were evaluated.Results:The training programme produced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the isometric and isokinetic strength of several shoulder movements as well as an increase (P<0.05) in arm fat-free mass and a decrease in arm fat mass (FM). Furthermore, reported pain was decreased, (P<0.05) and upper-limb functionality was increased (P<0.05).Conclusion:Implementing resistance training programmes as physical therapy in SCI subjects effectively increases strength, muscle mass and upper-limb functionality, whereas decreasing FM and pain perception.