Water dielectric microstrip patch antenna: case study at ISM 2.4 GHz

Joan L. Pijoan, Sergi Díaz, Aurora Andújar, Jaume Anguera

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Transparent antennas are becoming important in the wireless field since they can be integrated in combination with solar cells placed underneath the transparent antenna to make the antenna system compact. In this regard, water is used in this study. The behaviour of a water dielectric patch antenna is presented to find the influence of the thickness of water and the type of water used on the efficiency, gain and radiation pattern of the antenna. The water patch antennas operate at the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band of 2.4 GHz. Measured results are compared with a classical square patch made from copper where the water patch performs with a comparable efficiency and similar radiation patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)462-477
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Electronics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • liquid antennas
  • microstrip antennas
  • water antennas


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