Utilization of covariation knowledge in source monitoring: No evidence for implicit processes

Arndt Bröder, Daniela Noethen, Julia Schütz, Patrick Bay

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In three experiments, a "hidden covariation" (Lewicki, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 135-146, 1986) of nonsalient stimulus attributes and the source of stimulus information was established to test whether implicit knowledge about this correlation influences source memory judgments. The source monitoring framework (Johnson, Hashtroudi, and Lindsay, in Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28, 1993) postulates heuristic and strategic judgment processes in source attributions. A multinomial model analysis disentangled memory and guessing processes. While there were large strategic guessing biases involving explicit knowledge in all experiments, there was no evidence for the use of implicit covariation knowledge. Only participants who were later able to verbalize the covariation had shown corresponding biases during the source memory test, suggesting that implicit covariation knowledge plays no prominent role in the reconstruction processes in source monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)524-538
Number of pages15
JournalPsychological Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2007
Externally publishedYes


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