Transformational behaviors: Increasing work engagement in multinational environments

Marc Valldeneu, Xavier Ferràs, Elisenda Tarrats-Pons

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The role of a leader is fundamental to increase organizational culture and facilitate employee engagement. However, organizations are not providing clear guidance on how to do it. This study aims to determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee engagement as well as to understand whether there is a correlation between an engaged employee and extra effort. The study uses a Multi-Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x Rater Form) to measure employee perception of the leader styles and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) to determine employee engagement. The scope of the study is limited to a sample of 167 employees from 7 different multinational companies and 31 different nationalities. Results show that all the transformational behaviors and, concretely the idealized behavior, are significantly positively related to work engagement in multinational environments. Results also reveal a strong correlation between employee engagement and extra effort. The study concludes that leaders or managers should use transformational behaviors if they want to increase engagement and extra effort with their teams. They should increase transformational behaviors like being transparent, consistent, and having a strong sense of purpose to catalyze a collective engagement. These results expand previous studies of transformational leadership and work engagement in multinational environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-527
Number of pages9
JournalProblems and Perspectives in Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Eadership
  • Extra effort
  • Management
  • Organizational development
  • Transformational leadership
  • Work engagement


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