Every year, the number of ubiquitous sensor networks (USN) is increasing and the need for remote USN communications is emerging in some scenarios. As an alternative to satellite communications, more interests are focused on high frequencies (HF) communications as a low-cost option to reach links of more than 250 km without a line of sight. The HF standards are designed for generic communication channels being not robust for near vertical incidence skywave (NVIS) USN. In this article, we propose a new protocol for USN in remote places based on NVIS communications. For that purpose, we study the main characteristics of the NVIS channel with the presence of groundwaves, particularly in Antarctica. We analyze the availability of the channel, the height of the layers, the delay spread, and the Doppler spread. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose two protocols based on an OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) modulation depending on the presence of the groundwave at the receiver. Finally, we make a simulation of the two OFDM configurations and we compare it with real tested standard modulations. The results show a better performance of the new protocol compared to the current HF standards.
- MIL-STD 188 110C