Pseudo-set framing

Kate Barasz, Leslie K. John, Elizabeth A. Keenan, Michael I. Norton

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1460-1477
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Decision making
  • Framing effects
  • Gestalt psychology
  • Judgment
  • Perception

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