Objectives: To establish neuropsychological profiles after high- and low-risk preterm birth (i.e., with and without neonatal brain injury) during adolescence and young adulthood and to assess the potential role of early life environmental factors in cognition. Study design: Participants (N = 177; Mage = 20.11 years) of both sexes were evaluated when adolescent or in young adulthood. They were grouped according to their birth status: 30 high-risk preterm, 83 low-risk preterm and 64 born at full term. Results: Significant differences were found in several cognitive domains between groups. Furthermore, familial socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the relation between the degree of maturity/immaturity at birth and cognition (F (5,171) = 11.94, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.26). Discussion: The findings showed different neuropsychological profiles during adolescence and young adulthood, with the high-risk preterm sample evidencing lower cognitive values. In addition, higher scores in the familial SES score in this study seem to have a protective effect on cognition.