Physical activity and metabolic syndrome severity among older adults at cardiovascular risk: 1-Year trends

PREDIMED-PLUS investigators

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and aims: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results: Prospective analysis of 55–75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. Conclusion: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2870-2886
Number of pages17
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume31
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Depression risk
  • Dietary inflammatory index
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Metabolic syndrome severity
  • Physical activity
  • Sedentary behavior

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