Nitrosyl-Heme and Heme Iron Intake from Processed Meats in Subjects from the EPIC-Spain Cohort

Lucía Rizzolo-Brime, Andreu Farran-Codina, Ricard Bou, Leila Luján-Barroso, Jose Ramón Quirós, Pilar Amiano, María José Sánchez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Marcela Guevara, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Alba Gasque, María Dolores Chirlaque, Sandra M. Colorado-Yohar, José María Huerta Castaño, Antonio Agudo, Paula Jakszyn

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The consumption of processed meats (PMs) and red meats are linked to the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer. Various theories have been proposed to explain this connection, focusing on nitrosyl-heme and heme iron intake. We hypothesized that differences in nitrosyl-heme and heme iron intakes will be associated with various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Methods: The study included 38,471 healthy volunteers (62% females) from five Spanish regions within the EPIC-Spain cohort. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) determined nitrosyl-heme and heme iron levels in the 39 most consumed PMs. Food intake was assessed using validated questionnaires in interviews. Nitrosyl-heme and heme iron intakes, adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), center, and energy intake, were expressed as geometric means due to their skewed distribution. Variance analysis identified foods explaining the variability of nitrosyl-heme and heme iron intakes. Results: The estimated intakes were 528.6 µg/day for nitrosyl-heme and 1676.2 µg/day for heme iron. Significant differences in nitrosyl-heme intake were found by sex, center, energy, and education level. Heme iron intake varied significantly by sex, center, energy, and smoking status. “Jamón serrano” and “jamón cocido/jamón de York” had the highest intake values, while “morcilla asturiana” and “sangrecilla” were key sources of nitrosyl-heme and heme iron. Conclusions: This is the first study to estimate levels of nitrosyl-heme intake directly in PMs for a large sample, revealing variations based on sex, BMI, smoking, and activity. Its data aids future exposure estimations in diverse populations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number878
JournalNutrients
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • dietary intake
  • heme iron
  • meat derivatives
  • nitrosyl-heme
  • nitrosylation
  • processed meat

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