Multi-instrument detection in Europe of ionospheric disturbances caused by the 15 January 2022 eruption of the Hunga volcano

Tobias G.W. Verhulst, David Altadill, Veronika Barta, Anna Belehaki, Dalia Burešová, Claudio Cesaroni, Ivan Galkin, Marco Guerra, Alessandro Ippolito, Themistocles Herekakis, Daniel Kouba, Jens Mielich, Antoni Segarra, Luca Spogli, Ioanna Tsagouri

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The 15 January 2022 eruption of the Hunga volcano provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of the ionosphere to large explosive events. In particular, this event allows us to study the global propagation of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) using various instruments. We focus on detecting the ionospheric disturbances caused by this eruption over Europe, where dense networks of both ionosondes and GNSS receivers are available. This event took place on the day of a geomagnetic storm. We show how data from different instruments and observatories can be combined to distinguish the TIDs produced by the eruption from those caused by concurrent geomagnetic activity. The Lamb wavefront was detected as the strongest disturbance in the ionosphere, travelling between 300 and 340 m/s, consistent with the disturbances in the lower atmosphere. By comparing observations obtained from multiple types of instruments, we also show that TIDs produced by various mechanisms are present simultaneously, with different types of waves affecting different physical quantities. This illustrates the importance of analysing data from multiple independent instruments in order to obtain a full picture of an event like this one, as relying on only a single data source might result in some effects going unobserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1053
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Space Weather and Space Climate
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Medium-scale TIDs
  • Travelling ionospheric disturbances
  • Volcanic eruption impact on the ionosphere


Dive into the research topics of 'Multi-instrument detection in Europe of ionospheric disturbances caused by the 15 January 2022 eruption of the Hunga volcano'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this