Ionospheric narrowband and wideband HF soundings for communications purposes: A review

Marcos Hervás, Pau Bergadà, Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

Research output: Indexed journal article Reviewpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


High Frequency (HF) communications through ionospheric reflection is a widely used technique specifically for maritime, aeronautical, and emergency services communication with remote areas due to economic and management reasons, and also as backup system. Although long distance radio links can be established beyond line-of-sight, the availability, the usable frequencies and the capacity of the channel depends on the state of the ionosphere. The main factors that affect the ionosphere are day-night, season, sunspot number, polar aurora and earth magnetic field. These effects impair the transmitted wave, which suffers attenuation, time and frequency dispersion. In order to increase the knowledge of this channel, the ionosphere has been sounded by means of narrowband and wideband waveforms by the research community all over the world in several research initiatives. This work intends to be a review of remarkable projects for vertical sounding with a world wide network and for oblique sounding for high latitude, mid latitude, and trans-equatorial latitude.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2486
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020


  • Communication
  • Delay spread
  • Doppler spread
  • HF
  • Ionosphere
  • Oblique sounding
  • SNR
  • Skywave
  • Vertical sounding


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