Indications of Induction and Caesarean Sections Performed Using the Robson Classification in a University Hospital in Spain from 2010 to 2021

Rafael Vila-Candel, Nadia Piquer-Martín, Nerea Perdomo-Ugarte, José Antonio Quesada, Ramón Escuriet, Anna Martin-Arribas

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


Background: The Robson Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS) enables the assessment, monitoring, and comparison of caesarean section rates both within healthcare facilities and between them, and the indications of caesarean sections (CS) performed in a maternity ward. The aims of the present study were to conduct an analysis to assess the levels and distribution of birth from a descriptive approach by CS in La Ribera University Hospital (Spain) between 2010–2021 using the Robson classification; to describe the indications for the induction of labour and the causes of caesarean sections performed; and to examine the association between the induction of labour and CS birth. Methods: A retrospective study between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2021. All eligible women were classified according to the RTGCS to determine the absolute and relative contribution by each group to the overall CS rate. The odds ratio (OR) of the variables of interest was estimated by logistic regression. In an analysis of the subgroups, the level of significance was adjusted using the Bonferroni method. Results: 20,578 women gave birth during the study period, 19% of them by CS. In 33% of births, induction was performed, and the most common cause was the premature rupture of membranes. Group 2 (nulliparous with induced labour/elective CS before labour) accounted for the largest contribution to the overall rate of CS (31.5%) and showed an upward trend from 23.2% to 39.7% in the time series, increasing the CS rate by 6.7%. The leading cause of CS was suspected fetal distress, followed by induction failure. Conclusions: In our study, Robson Group 2 was identified as the main contributor to the hospital’s overall CS rate. Determining the causes of induction and CS in a population sample classified using the RTGCS enables the identification of the groups with the greatest deviation from the optimal rate of CS and the establishment of improvement plans to reduce the overall rate of caesarean sections in the maternity unit.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1521
Number of pages12
JournalHealthcare (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2023


  • caesarean section
  • indications
  • labour induction
  • mode of birth
  • onset of labour
  • Robson classification


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