Impact of mediterranean diet promotion on environmental sustainability: a longitudinal analysis

L. Álvarez-Álvarez, F. Vitelli-Storelli, M. Rubín-García, S. García, C. Bouzas, M. Ruíz-Canela, D. Corella, J. Salas-Salvadó, M. Fitó, J. A. Martínez, L. Tojal-Sierra, J. Wärnberg, J. Vioque, D. Romaguera, J. López-Miranda, R. Estruch, F. J. Tinahones, J. M. Santos-Lozano, L. Serra-Majem, A. Bueno-CavanillasC. García-Fernández, V. Esteve-Luque, M. Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Torrego-Ellacuría, J. Vidal, L. Prieto, L. Daimiel, R. Casas, A. García Arellano, S. Shyam, J. I. González, O. Castañer, A. García-Rios, F. Ortiz Díaz, A. C. Fernández, A. Sánchez-Villegas, M. Morey, N. Cano-Ibañez, C. Sorto-Sánchez, M. R. Bernal-López, M. Bes-Rastrollo, S. K. Nishi, O. Coltell, M. D. Zomeño, P. J. Peña-Orihuela, D. V. Aparicio, M. A. Zulet, Z. Vázquez, N. Babio, K. A. Pérez, J. A. Tur, V. Martín-Sánchez

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: This article aims to estimate the differences in environmental impact (greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, land use, energy used, acidification and potential eutrophication) after one year of promoting a Mediterranean diet (MD). Methods: Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from 5800 participants in the PREDIMED-Plus study were used. Each participant's food intake was estimated using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, and the adherence to MD using the Dietary Score. The influence of diet on environmental impact was assessed through the EAT-Lancet Commission tables. The influence of diet on environmental impact was assessed through the EAT-Lancet Commission tables. The association between MD adherence and its environmental impact was calculated using adjusted multivariate linear regression models. Results: After one year of intervention, the kcal/day consumed was significantly reduced (−125,1 kcal/day), adherence to a MD pattern was improved (+0,9) and the environmental impact due to the diet was significantly reduced (GHG: −361 g/CO2-eq; Acidification:-11,5 g SO2-eq; Eutrophication:-4,7 g PO4-eq; Energy use:-842,7 kJ; and Land use:-2,2 m2). Higher adherence to MD (high vs. low) was significantly associated with lower environmental impact both at baseline and one year follow-up. Meat products had the greatest environmental impact in all the factors analysed, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up, in spite of the reduction observed in their consumption. Conclusions: A program promoting a MD, after one year of intervention, significantly reduced the environmental impact in all the factors analysed. Meat products had the greatest environmental impact in all the dimensions analysed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-20
Number of pages9
JournalPublic Health
Volume230
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

Keywords

  • Environmental footprint
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Sustainable diets

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