Gout Management Using Nanocarrier Systems: A Review

Chia Wen Qi, Ummu Umaimah Mohd Nordin, Syed Mahmood, Nisha Rata Karusan, Ramsha Khalid, Nurdiana Nordin, Cristina Fornaguera, Noraini Ahmad

Research output: Indexed journal article Reviewpeer-review

Abstract

Gout is an inflammatory arthropathy resulting from the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints, triggering the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Some of the key principles for managing gout are encompassing comorbidity screening, gout flare treatment, urate-lowering therapy, and anti-inflammatory prophylaxis. One of the major concerns with gout treatment is the side effects of drug due to uncontrolled biodistribution. Nanocarrier systems are utilized to surmount the limitations of current drugs, including not only biodistribution issues but also the stability and bioavailability of the drugs. Nanocarriers as promising drug delivery systems can effectively deliver drugs by specifically targeting inflamed tissues through enhanced permeability and retention effect mediated delivery. Notable examples include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, and liquid crystalline nanoparticles, namely, cubosomes, hexosomes, and spongosomes. These nanocarriers hold great promise as vehicles for transporting poorly therapeutic agents to precise target sites, associated with controlled release capabilities to bolster bioavailability. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nanocarrier-based therapies in reducing inflammation by specifically targeting inflamed tissues, inhibiting urate crystal formation, and improving joint function in animal models of gout. In this review, we explore the main nanocarrier systems, including their respective advantages and drawbacks, and emphasize their role in nanoformulations for advancing gout treatment. The encapsulation of active agents within nanocarriers for gout therapy represents a significant advancement in the pharmaceutical area and nanomedicine application to succeed in the overall context of gout treatment in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9816-9846
Number of pages31
JournalACS Applied Nano Materials
Volume7
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2024

Keywords

  • gout management
  • liposome
  • monosodium urate
  • nanoemulsion
  • nanoformulation
  • niosome
  • polymeric nanoparticle
  • solid lipid nanoparticles

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