Global evidence of environmental and lifestyle effects on medical expenditures across 154 countries

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Increases of health care expenditures (HCEs) challenge the financial capacity of governments and bring into question the quality of health care services in each country. It is known that modifiable risk factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) and certain environmental variables allow HCEs to be modeled without impairing the quality of healthcare services. We provide a worldwide statistical analysis of how HCEs can be reduced and with what statistical power/probability. The design was retrospective and was based on linear and nonlinear multiple regression models. The HCEs, alcohol consumption, renewable energy consumption, suicide rate, economic reversal of the environmental damage caused by CO2 emissions (ERCDE) and sales-focused jobs (SJs) were measured. The type of government and the most searched Twitter worldwide topics were also analyzed. A total of 154 countries (n) participated. Reducing alcohol consumption, SJs and ERCDE predicts linear reductions of 33.1% of HCEs. Annual alcohol consumption between 4 and 5 L per person was found to have no negative impact on HCEs. Beyond this tipping point, alcohol consumption did predict significant increases in HCEs. It was also found that renewable energy consumption exponentially explained 35.2% of the reductions in HCEs. HCEs can be reduced in each country by controlling the consumption of renewable energies, the ERCDE, and the SJs. Specifically, by controlling alcohol consumption, SJs, and ERCDE the economic reduction in HCEs could be reduced annually by as much as $228.466 per person. We offer tipping points that governments can use to make effective health policy decisions that include sustainable development goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102036
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Carbon dioxide emissions
  • Health care expenditure
  • Medical expenditures
  • Preventive medicine
  • Renewable energy consumption
  • Sustainability


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