Evaluation of Glottal Inverse Filtering Techniques on OPENGLOT Synthetic Male and Female Vowels †

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


Current articulatory-based three-dimensional source–filter models, which allow the production of vowels and diphtongs, still present very limited expressiveness. Glottal inverse filtering (GIF) techniques can become instrumental to identify specific characteristics of both the glottal source signal and the vocal tract transfer function to resemble expressive speech. Several GIF methods have been proposed in the literature; however, their comparison becomes difficult due to the lack of common and exhaustive experimental settings. In this work, first, a two-phase analysis methodology for the comparison of GIF techniques based on a reference dataset is introduced. Next, state-of-the-art GIF techniques based on iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF) and quasi closed phase (QCP) approaches are thoroughly evaluated on OPENGLOT, an open database specifically designed to evaluate GIF, computing well-established GIF error measures after extending male vowels with their female counterparts. The results show that GIF methods obtain better results on male vowels. The QCP-based techniques significantly outperform IAIF-based methods for almost all error metrics and scenarios and are, at the same time, more stable across sex, phonation type, F0, and vowels. The IAIF variants improve the original technique for most error metrics on male vowels, while QCP with spectral tilt compensation achieves a lower spectral tilt error for male vowels than the original QCP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8775
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • glottal inverse filtering
  • glottal source
  • performance evaluation
  • phonation types
  • speech analysis


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