Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Chronic Time Pressure Inventory using Rasch analysis

Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Álex Escolà-Gascón

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Chronic time pressure is a common source of everyday stress and anxiety. Noting this, the Chronic Time Pressure Inventory (CTPI) was designed to measure the construct within general samples. The CTPI was validated using procedures informed by classical test theory. This identified a bifactor solution, comprising a general factor encompassing two overlapping factors: Cognitive Awareness of Time Shortage and Feeling Harried. Furthermore, the CTPI demonstrated good psychometric integrity. Explicitly, internal consistency, satisfactory convergent validity with the Perceived Stress Scale, and measurement invariance. While these outcomes indicated that the CTPI was an effective measure of chronic time pressure, the scale was not subjected to analysis of item-person functioning (i.e., Rasch evaluation). Methods: This study accordingly examined the psychometric properties of the CTPI using Rasch analysis. A general sample of 748 (595 females, 153 males) participants completed the measure online. Results: Initial findings recommended modification of the response scale. Subsequent analyses revealed unidimensionality, adequate item/person reliability, and gender invariance. Overall, findings confirmed that the CTPI was a valid instrument for assessing perceptions of chronic time pressure within general population samples. Noting the lack of items aligning with higher ability levels, future work should develop the CTPI by adding more complex positively keyed items.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15218
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2023


  • Chronic time pressure
  • Chronic Time Pressure Inventory
  • Dimensionality
  • Psychometric properties
  • Rasch analysis


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