Environmental concentrations of tire rubber-derived 6PPD-quinone alter CNS function in zebrafish larvae

Marina Ricarte, Eva Prats, Nicola Montemurro, Juliette Bedrossiantz, Marina Bellot, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Demetrio Raldúa

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


N-(1,3-Dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine quinone (6PPD-quinone) is a degradation product of 6PPD, an antioxidant widely used in rubber tires. 6PPD-quinone enters aquatic ecosystems through urban stormwater runoff and has been identified as the chemical behind the urban runoff mortality syndrome in coho salmon. However, the available data suggest that the acute effects of 6PPD-quinone are restricted to a few salmonid species and that the environmental levels of this chemical should be safe for most fish. In this study, larvae of a “tolerant” fish species, Danio rerio, were exposed to three environmental concentrations of 6PPD-quinone for only 24 h, and the effects on exploratory behavior, escape response, nonassociative learning (habituation), neurotransmitter profile, wake/sleep cycle, circadian rhythm, heart rate and oxygen consumption rate were analyzed. Exposure to the two lowest concentrations of 6PPD-quinone resulted in altered exploratory behavior and habituation, an effect consistent with some of the observed changes in the neurotransmitter profile, including increased levels of acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. Moreover, exposure to the highest concentration tested altered the wake/sleep cycle and the expression of per1a, per3 and cry3a, circadian clock genes involved in the negative feedback loop. Finally, a positive chronotropic effect of 6PPD-quinone was observed in the hearts of the exposed fish. The results of this study emphasize the need for further studies analyzing the effects of 6PPD-quinone in “tolerant” fish species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number165240
Number of pages10
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2023


  • 6PPD-quinone
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Heart rate
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Tire rubber
  • Zebrafish larvae


Dive into the research topics of 'Environmental concentrations of tire rubber-derived 6PPD-quinone alter CNS function in zebrafish larvae'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this