Dietary patterns and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Míriam Rodríguez-Monforte, Gemma Flores-Mateo, Emilia Sánchez Ruiz

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

128 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Epidemiological studies show that diet is linked to the risk of developing CVD. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the association between empirically derived dietary patterns and CVD. PubMed was searched for observational studies of data-driven dietary patterns that reported outcomes of cardiovascular events. The association between dietary patterns and CVD was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis with 95 % CI. Totally, twenty-two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risk (RR) for CVD, CHD and stroke in a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of prudent/healthy dietary patterns in cohort studies was 0.69 (95 % CI 0.60, 0.78; I 2=0 %), 0.83 (95 % CI 0.75, 0.92; I 2=44.6 %) and 0.86 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.01; I 2=59.5 %), respectively. The pooled RR of CHD in a case-control comparison of the highest to the lowest category of prudent/healthy dietary patterns was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.63, 0.80; I 2=0 %). The pooled RR for CVD, CHD and stroke in a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of western dietary patterns in cohort studies was 1.14 (95 % CI 0.92, 1.42; I 2=56.9 %), 1.03 (95 % CI 0.90, 1.17; I 2=59.4 %) and 1.05 (95 % CI 0.91, 1.22; I 2=27.6 %), respectively; in case-control studies, there was evidence of increased CHD risk. Our results support the evidence of the prudent/healthy pattern as a protective factor for CVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1341-1359
Number of pages19
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume114
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2015

Keywords

  • CVD
  • Dietary patterns
  • Meta-analyses
  • Systematic reviews

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