Cross-cultural analysis of a new indicator which measures the degree of Islamophobia social awareness

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There is ample evidence documenting the problem of Islamophobia (discrimination and racism against the Muslim community). However, the extent to which the European population is aware of this injustice has not exhaustively been assessed. The aim of this research was to measure in a valid and reliable way the degree of social awareness of Islamophobia in four European countries: Spain, France, United Kingdom and Germany. The sample consisted of 1846 volunteers from these countries. All of them answered a structured protocol on social awareness called Degree of Islamophobia Recognition (DIR). Several cross-cultural analyses based on the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique, the ordinal alpha coefficient and the Greatest Lower Bound (GLB) were applied to analyze the dimensionality of the DIR and its reliability. Six sex-differentiated population scales were made based on derived typical scores (TS). The results revealed that the DIR consisted of two cultural dimensions: perceived vulnerability and connection. Both dimensions explained between 51% and 61% of the variance in all countries. Reliability coefficients were acceptable in all cases (>0.7). We propose that public policies combat Islamophobia considering these dimensions and taking into consideration the thresholds of the derived PTs to identify in which regions or social groups these intervention policies are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-169
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Cross-cultural analysis
  • Degree of Islamophobia recognition-DIR
  • Islamophobia
  • Muslims
  • Social cognition
  • Social identity theory


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