Contribution of Vocal Tract and Glottal Source Spectral Cues in the Generation of Acted Happy and Aggressive Spanish Vowels

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Abstract

The source-filter model is one of the main techniques applied to speech analysis and syn-thesis. Recent advances in voice production by means of three-dimensional (3D) source-filter models have overcome several limitations of classic one-dimensional techniques. Despite the development of preliminary attempts to improve the expressiveness of 3D-generated voices, they are still far from achieving realistic results. Towards this goal, this work analyses the contribution of both the the vocal tract (VT) and the glottal source spectral (GSS) cues in the generation of happy and aggressive speech through a GlottDNN-based analysis-by-synthesis methodology. Paired neutral expressive utterances are parameterised to generate different combinations of expressive vowels, applying the target expressive GSS and/or VT cues on the neutral vowels after transplanting the expressive prosody on these utterances. The conducted objective tests focused on Spanish [a], [i] and [u] vowels show that both GSS and VT cues significantly reduce the spectral distance to the expressive target. The results from the perceptual test show that VT cues make a statistically significant contribution in the expression of happy and aggressive emotions for [a] vowels, while the GSS contribution is significant in [i] and [u] vowels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2055
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Emotional database
  • Expressive speech synthesis
  • GlottDNN
  • Glottal source
  • Inverse filtering
  • Numerical voice production
  • Speech analysis
  • Vocal tract

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