Association of adiposity and its changes over time with COVID-19 risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome: a longitudinal evaluation in the PREDIMED-Plus cohort

Sangeetha Shyam, Jesús Francisco García-Gavilán, Indira Paz-Graniel, José J. Gaforio, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, J. Alfredo Martínez, Ángel M. Alonso-Gómez, Julia Wärnberg, Jesús Vioque, Dora Romaguera, José López-Miranda, Ramon Estruch, Francisco J. Tinahones, José Lapetra, J. Luís Serra-Majem, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Josep A. Tur, Vicente Martín Sánchez, Xavier PintóPilar Matía-Martín, Josep Vidal, Clotilde Vázquez, Lidia Daimiel, Emilio Ros, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Stephanie K. Nishi, Oscar Garcia-Regata, Estefania Toledo, Eva M. Asensio, Olga Castañer, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Laura Torres-Collado, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, M. Angeles Zulet, Nuria Goñi Ruiz, Rosa Casas, Naomi Cano-Ibáñez, Lucas Tojal-Sierra, A. M. Gómez-Perez, Jose V. Sorlí, Sergio Cinza-Sanjurjo, Sandra Martín-Peláez, Patricia J. Peña-Orihuela, Alejandro Oncina-Canovas, Rafael Perez-Araluce, María Dolores Zomeño, Alice Chaplin, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Nancy Babio, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cross-sectionally, older age and obesity are associated with increased coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) risk. We assessed the longitudinal associations of baseline and changes in adiposity parameters with COVID-19 incidence in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: This analysis included 6874 men and women (aged 55–75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED-Plus lifestyle intervention trial for cardiovascular risk reduction. Body weight, body-mass-index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and a body shape index (ABSI) were measured at baseline and annual follow-up visits. COVID-19 was ascertained by an independent Event Committee until 31 December 2021. Cox regression models were fitted to evaluate the risk of COVID-19 incidence based on baseline adiposity parameters measured 5–6 years before the pandemic and their changes at the visit prior to censoring. Results: At the time of censoring, 653 incident COVID-19 cases occurred. Higher baseline body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and WHtR were associated with increased COVID-19 risk. During the follow-up, every unit increase in body weight (HRadj (95%CI): 1.01 (1.00, 1.03)) and BMI (HRadj: 1.04 (1.003, 1.08)) was associated with increased COVID-19 risk. Conclusions: In older adults with overweight/obesity, clinically significant weight loss may protect against COVID-19. Trial registration: This study is registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCT; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870).

Original languageEnglish
Article number390
JournalBMC Medicine
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Central obesity
  • COVID-19
  • Obesity
  • Older adults
  • Weight loss

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