Application of nutrient profile models to compare products offered in ‘healthy’ vs ‘conventional’ vending machines in a Spanish hospital environment

E. Carrillo-Álvarez, E. Caro-García, V. Cayssials, P. Jakszyn

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Vending machines promote easy access to food with low nutritional value. ‘Healthy’ vending machines (HVM) have been introduced as a means to improve the availability and accessibility of healthy food options, and the healthiness of the foods, however, has not been evaluated. Objective: Our aim was to assess the healthiness of the products offered in HVM and ‘conventional’ vending machines (CVM), located in the Catalan Institute of Oncology. Study design and methods: All products available in vending machines (HVM (n = 33) and CVM (n = 62) were evaluate during three nutrient profile models (NPMs): the World Health Organization's European Regional Office model (WHO), Nutrient Profile Model UK (NPM-UK), and Australian Health Star Rating system (HSR). Results: Regardless of the NPM used, significant differences found in the proportion of healthy products among HVM and CVM (WHO: P-value = 0.005, NPM-UK: P value < 0.001, HSR: P-value < 0.001). The healthy products offered in HVM accounted for 30%, 73%, and 52% of the total content, while CVM offered 6%, 32%, and 15% of the content, as assessed by WHO, NPM-UK, and HSR, respectively. The WHO model was the most restrictive model, and the NPM-UK was the most permissible one. Conclusions: Although not all products in HVM are rated as healthy by the different NPMs, the percentage of healthy products was significantly higher than those in CVM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-146
Number of pages12
JournalPublic Health
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Dietary guidelines
  • Hospital environment
  • Nutrient profile models
  • Public health
  • Vending machines


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