A novel solution for hydrogen monitoring in fusion processes: 3D printed BaCe0.6Zr0.3Y0.1O3-α sensors

Antonio Hinojo, Enric Lujan, Jordi Abella, Sergi Colominas

Research output: Indexed journal article Articlepeer-review


The control of tritium (3H) in liquid-based tritium breeding blankets (TBBs) is one of the key points to assure their correct performance to prove the 3H sufficiency. For that, electrochemical sensors are a good option for tritium quantification since they can perform in-situ and online measurements. One of the multiple challenges for hydrogen detection is to find suitable materials that can operate at high temperatures and in harsh environments. In this context, perovskite-type ceramics, such as BaCe0.6Zr0.3Y0.1O3-α (BCZY), have elevated proton conductivity and exceptional stability even in reducing atmospheres and at elevated temperatures, which make them strong contenders for high-temperature hydrogen sensing applications. In the present study, we describe the development of a dual-mode hydrogen sensors based on 3D-printed BCZY, which allows a high degree of design flexibility. Crucible geometries were tested and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical sensors were constructed and characterized at 400, 450 and 500 °C in both, amperometric and potentiometric configuration. The results demonstrated the capability of 3D-printed BCZY sensors for hydrogen detection in fusion reactors, offering a breakthrough solution for monitoring fusion processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101661
JournalNuclear Materials and Energy
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Amperometric
  • BCZY
  • Electrochemical monitoring
  • Hydrogen sensor
  • Potentiometric
  • Stereolithography


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