Ventilator-associated pneumonia is linked to a worse prognosis than community-acquired pneumonia in children

Maria Hernandez-Garcia, Monica Girona-Alarcon, Sara Bobillo-Perez, Mireia Urrea-Ayala, Anna Sole-Ribalta, Mònica Balaguer, Francisco José Cambra, Iolanda Jordan

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Background Around 12-20% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second cause of nosocomial infection in Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). As far as we know, there are no studies comparing both types of pneumonia in children, thus it remains unclear if there are differences between them in terms of severity and outcomes. Objective The aim was to compare clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe CAP and VAP. Methods A retrospective descriptive study, including patients diagnosed of VAP and CAP, with a positive respiratory culture and under mechanical ventilation, admitted to the PICU from 2015 to 2019. Results 238 patients were included; 163 (68.4%) with CAP, and 75 (31.5%) with VAP. Patients with VAP needed longer mechanical ventilation (14 vs. 7 days, p<0.001) and more inotropic support (49.3 vs. 30.7%, p = 0.006). Patients with VAP had higher mortality (12 vs. 2.5%, p = 0.005). Enterobacterales were more involved with VAP than with CAP (48 vs. 9%, p<0.001). Taking into account only the non-drug sensitive microorganisms, patients with VAP tended to have more multidrug-resistant bacteria (30 vs. 10.8%, p = 0.141) than patients with CAP. Conclusion Patients with VAP had worse prognosis than patients with CAP, needing longer mechanical ventilation, more inotropic support and had higher mortality. Patients with VAP were mainly infected by Enterobacterales and had more multidrug resistant microorganisms than patients with CAP.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’articlee0271450
RevistaPLoS ONE
Número7 July
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - de jul. 2022
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