Since 2012, Catalonia has been undergoing a complex political process in which a broad segment of the population has shown itself to be in favor of seceding from the Kingdom of Spain. This phenomenon is not new, given that during the 20th century, the relationship between the two territories was a source of instability and controversy, especially during the Civil War (1936-1939). However, the enormous popular dimension and the massive participation of hundreds of thousands of citizens have represented a remarkable new occurrence in recent times. Based on this situation, the primary aim of the present article is to describe the main reasons for this radicalization in the process of a hypothetical secession in which Catalonia breaks away from Spain. It also seeks to analyze and interpret the role that the media is playing in the so-called “Catalan Process.” Achieving this second objective has been possible thanks to research undertaken by Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations (Ramon Llull University) based on more than 7,000 journalistic pieces published or broadcasted in more than 100 newspapers, magazines, television stations, radio stations, and cybernewspapers in seven different languages. The most significant conclusion of this study, based on content analysis of the aforementioned sample, is that the media are not being neutral in their coverage of the process. Thus, they have identified to varying degrees with one of the three possible outcomes of the conflict: the maintenance of the unity of Spain, the preferred option of much of national and international media; the independence of Catalonia, the choice of a high percentage of media in Catalonia itself; or a new relationship based on a federal system in Spain that would include Catalonia, the possibility with the least level of support in the three geographical areas studied.