Optimization of an MMPB Lemieux Oxidation method for the quantitative analysis of microcystins in fish tissue by LC-QTOF MS

Maryam Tabatabaei Anaraki, René S. Shahmohamadloo, Paul K. Sibley, Karen MacPherson, Satyendra P. Bhavsar, André J. Simpson, Xavier Ortiz Almirall

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Microcystins are toxic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria in marine and freshwater environments. In biological samples such as fish, microcystins can be found in the free form or covalently bound to protein phosphatases type I and II. Total microcystins in fish have been quantified in the past using the Lemieux Oxidation approach, where all toxins are oxidated to a common fragment (2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid, MMPB) regardless of their initial amino acid configuration or form (free or protein bound). These studies have been carried out using different experimental conditions and employed different quantification strategies. The present study has further investigated the oxidation step using a systematic approach, to identify the most important factors leading to a higher, more robust MMPB generation yield from fish tissue in order to reduce the method detection limit. Field samples were quantified using an in-situ generated MMPB matrix matched calibration curve by isotope dilution with d3-MMPB via liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS). This approach improves method's accuracy by taking into account of potential matrix effects that could affect the derivatization, sample prepation and instrumental analysis steps. The validated method showed 16.7% precision (RSD) and +6.7% accuracy (bias), with calculated method detection limits of 7.28 ng g−1 Performance of the method was assessed with the analysis of laboratory exposed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cyanobacteria as a positive control, where no microcystins were detected in the pre-exposure fish liver and fillet, low levels in the exposed fillet (65.0 ng g−1) and higher levels in the exposed liver (696 ng g−1). Finally, the method was employed for the analysis of 26 fillets (muscle) and livers of Walleye (Sander vitreus) and Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from Lake Erie, showing very low concentrations of microcystins in the fillet and higher concentrations in liver, up to 3720 ng g−1.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’article140209
RevistaScience of the Total Environment
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 1 d’oct. 2020
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