Coastal ecosystems are under significant human pressure, partly due to the proximity of pollution sources. In this study, a total of 20 samples were taken in summer around the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands (Spain) using a manta trawl net to examine the concentrations of floating plastic debris through the NIXE III project campaign. Although plastic concentrations showed high variability along the coast, the higher particle concentration (max: 4,576,115 items ⋅ km−2) and weight (max: 8,102.94 g(DW) ⋅ km−2) values were located at the north of the Balearic Promontory. The particle size analysis showed the high prevalence of microplastics (< 5 mm) in these waters, where particles of approximately 0.7 mm and 1 mm2 were the most frequent in the range analyzed. The high plastic concentration values in the N-NW coast of Ibiza and Mallorca in sparsely populated locations suggest that the plastic particle distribution was mostly conditioned by the hydrodynamic surface conditions.