The design of colloidal nanosystems intended for biomedical applications, specifically in the field of personalized medicine, has increased notably in the last years. Consequently, a variety of characterization techniques devoted to studying nanomedicine interactions with proteins and cells have been developed, since a deep characterization of nanosystems is required before starting preclinical and clinical studies. In this context, this review aims to summarize the main techniques used to assess the interaction of nanomedicines with biological systems, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. Testing designed nanomaterials with these techniques is required in order to have more information about their behavior on a physiological environment. Moreover, techniques used to study the interaction of nanomedicines with proteins, such as albumin and fibrinogen, are summarized. These interactions are not desired, since they usually are the first signal to the body for the activation of the immune system, which leads to the clearance of the exogenous components. On the other hand, techniques for studying the cell toxicity of nanosystems are also summarized, since this information is required before starting preclinical steps. The translation of knowledge from novel designed nanosystems at a research laboratory scale to real human therapies is usually a limiting or even a final point due to the lack of systematic studies regarding these two aspects: nanoparticle interaction with biological components and nanoparticle cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this review will be a useful support for those scientists aiming to develop nanosystems for nanomedicine purposes.