Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are central to the advent of multicellular life, and their mechanical propertiesare modulated by and impinge on intracellular signaling pathways that regulate vital cellular functions. High spatial-resolution mapping of mechanical properties in live cells is, however, extremely challenging. Thus, our understanding of how signaling pathways process physiological signals to generate appropriate mechanical responses is limited. We introduce fluorescence emission-Brillouin scattering imaging (FBi), a method for the parallel and all-optical measurements of mechanical properties and fluorescence at the submicrometer scale in living organisms. Using FBi, we showed thatchanges in cellular hydrostatic pressure and cytoplasm viscoelasticity modulate the mechanical signatures of plant ECMs. We further established that the measured "stiffness" of plant ECMs is symmetrically patternedin hypocotyl cells undergoing directional growth. Finally, application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana with photoreceptor mutants revealed that red and far-red light signals are essential modulators of ECM viscoelasticity. By mapping the viscoelastic signatures of a complex ECM, we provide proof of principlefor the organism-wide applicability of FBi for measuring the mechanical outputs of intracellular signaling pathways. As such, our work has implications for investigations of mechanosignaling pathways and developmental biology.