Lung ultrasound and procalcitonin, improving antibiotic management and avoiding radiation exposure in pediatric critical patients with bacterial pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial

Carmina Guitart, Sara Bobillo-Perez, Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, José Luis Carrasco, Pedro Brotons, Maria Goretti López-Ramos, Francisco José Cambra, Mònica Balaguer, Iolanda Jordan

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Resum

Background: Pneumonia is a major public health problem with an impact on morbidity and mortality. Its management still represents a challenge. The aim was to determine whether a new diagnostic algorithm combining lung ultrasound (LUS) and procalcitonin (PCT) improved pneumonia management regarding antibiotic use, radiation exposure, and associated costs, in critically ill pediatric patients with suspected bacterial pneumonia (BP). Methods: Randomized, blinded, comparative effectiveness clinical trial. Children < 18y with suspected BP admitted to the PICU from September 2017 to December 2019, were included. PCT was determined at admission. Patients were randomized into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) if LUS or chest X-ray (CXR) were done as the first image test, respectively. Patients were classified: 1.LUS/CXR not suggestive of BP and PCT < 1 ng/mL, no antibiotics were recommended; 2.LUS/CXR suggestive of BP, regardless of the PCT value, antibiotics were recommended; 3.LUS/CXR not suggestive of BP and PCT > 1 ng/mL, antibiotics were recommended. Results: 194 children were enrolled, 113 (58.2%) females, median age of 134 (IQR 39–554) days. 96 randomized into EG and 98 into CG. 1. In 75/194 patients the image test was not suggestive of BP with PCT < 1 ng/ml; 29/52 in the EG and 11/23 in the CG did not receive antibiotics. 2. In 101 patients, the image was suggestive of BP; 34/34 in the EG and 57/67 in the CG received antibiotics. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed when PCT resulted < 1 ng/ml (p = 0.01). 3. In 18 patients the image test was not suggestive of BP but PCT resulted > 1 ng/ml, all of them received antibiotics. A total of 0.035 mSv radiation/patient was eluded. A reduction of 77% CXR/patient was observed. LUS did not significantly increase costs. Conclusions: Combination of LUS and PCT showed no risk of mistreating BP, avoided radiation and did not increase costs. The algorithm could be a reliable tool for improving pneumonia management. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04217980.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’article222
RevistaEuropean Journal of Medical Research
Volum29
Número1
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - de des. 2024
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