Introduction Teaching strategies are essential in order to facilitate meaningful learning and the development of high-level thinking skills in students. Objective To compare three teaching methodologies (problem-based learning, case-based teaching and traditional methods) in terms of the learning outcomes achieved by nursing students. Method This quasi-experimental research was carried out in the Nursing Degree programme in a group of 74 students who explored the subject of The Oncology Patient through the aforementioned strategies. A performance test was applied based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. Results A significant correlation was found between the intragroup theoretical and theoretical-practical dimensions. Likewise, intergroup differences were related to each teaching methodology. Hence, significant differences were estimated between the traditional methodology (x− = 9.13), case-based teaching (x− = 12.96) and problem-based learning (x− = 14.84). Conclusions Problem-based learning was shown to be the most successful learning method, followed by case-based teaching and the traditional methodology.