Integrative development of a short screening questionnaire of highly processed food consumption (sQ-HPF)

Celia Martinez-Perez, Lidia Daimiel, Cristina Climent-Mainar, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Dolores Corella, Helmut Schröder, Jose Alfredo Martinez, Ángel M. Alonso-Gómez, Julia Wärnberg, Jesús Vioque, Dora Romaguera, José López-Miranda, Ramón Estruch, Francisco J. Tinahones, José Lapetra, Lluis Serra-Majem, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Josep A. Tur, Vicente Martín SánchezXavier Pintó, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Pilar Matía-Martín, Josep Vidal, Clotilde Vázquez, Emilio Ros, Javier Basterra, Nancy Babio, Patricia Guillem-Saiz, María Dolores Zomeño, Itziar Abete, Jessica Vaquero-Luna, Francisco Javier Barón-López, Sandra Gonzalez-Palacios, Jadwiga Konieczna, Antonio Garcia-Rios, María Rosa Bernal-López, José Manuel Santos-Lozano, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Nadine Khoury, Carmen Saiz, Karla Alejandra Pérez-Vega, María Angeles Zulet, Lucas Tojal-Sierra, Zenaida Vázquez Ruiz, Maria Angeles Martinez, Mireia Malcampo, José M. Ordovás, Rodrigo San-Cristobal

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Background: Recent lifestyle changes include increased consumption of highly processed foods (HPF), which has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, nutritional information relies on the estimation of HPF consumption from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) that are not explicitly developed for this purpose. We aimed to develop a short screening questionnaire of HPF consumption (sQ-HPF) that integrates criteria from the existing food classification systems. Methods: Data from 4400 participants (48.1% female and 51.9% male, 64.9 ± 4.9 years) of the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus (“PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet”) trial were used for this analysis. Items from the FFQ were classified according to four main food processing-based classification systems (NOVA, IARC, IFIC and UNC). Participants were classified into tertiles of HPF consumption according to each system. Using binomial logistic regression, food groups associated with agreement in the highest tertile for at least two classification systems were chosen as items for the questionnaire. ROC analysis was used to determine cut-off points for the frequency of consumption of each item, from which a score was calculated. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach’s analysis, and agreement with the four classifications was assessed with weighted kappa coefficients. Results: Regression analysis identified 14 food groups (items) associated with high HPF consumption for at least two classification systems. EFA showed that items were representative contributors of a single underlying factor, the “HPF dietary pattern” (factor loadings around 0.2). We constructed a questionnaire asking about the frequency of consumption of those items. The threshold frequency of consumption was selected using ROC analysis. Comparison of the four classification systems and the sQ-HPF showed a fair to high agreement. Significant changes in lifestyle characteristics were detected across tertiles of the sQ-HPF score. Longitudinal changes in HPF consumption were also detected by the sQ-HPF, concordantly with existing classification systems. Conclusions: We developed a practical tool to measure HPF consumption, the sQ-HPF. This may be a valuable instrument to study its relationship with NCDs. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Registry (ISRCTN89898870) on July 24, 2014.

Idioma originalAnglès
Número d’article6
RevistaInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volum19
Número1
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - de des. 2022

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