Intake and food sources of nitrites and N-nitrosodimethylamine in Spain

Paula Jakszyn, Antonio Agudo, Antonio Berenguer, Raquel Ibáñez, Pilar Amiano, Guillem Pera, Eva Ardanaz, Aurelio Barricarte, María Dolores Chirlaque, Miren Dorronsoro, Nerea Larrañaga, Carmen Martinez, Carmen Navarro, José R. Quirós, María José Sanchéz, María José Tormo, Carlos A. González

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Objective: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of dietary intakes of nitrites and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Subjects and setting: A study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to assess the intake and food sources of these compounds in Spanish adults. The study included 41 446 health volunteers, aged 29-69 years, from Northern and Southern regions. Usual food intake was estimated by in-person interviews using a computerised dietary questionnaire. Results: The estimated geometric mean was 0.994 mg day-1 for nitrites and 0.114 μg day-1 for NDMA. For both compounds a positive trend in consumption with increasing energy intake was observed. Dietary NDMA was related to age and sex after energy adjustment, while nitrite consumption increased with higher intakes of vitamin C (P < 0.001). The food groups that contributed most to intakes were meat products, cereals, vegetables and fruits for nitrites, and processed meat, beer, cheese and broiled fish for NDMA. Current and past smokers, who had high levels of NDMA from tobacco exposure, were also identified as the highest consumers of dietary NDMA. Furthermore, smokers had low intakes of vitamin C (an inhibitor of endogenous nitrosation). Conclusions: Intake levels of NDMA and nitrites in a Mediterranean cohort are currently relatively lower than those previously reported, although processed meat, beer and cured cheese still are the most important contributors to NDMA intake.

Idioma originalAnglès
Pàgines (de-a)785-791
Nombre de pàgines7
RevistaPublic Health Nutrition
Volum9
Número6
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 2006
Publicat externament

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