Increased ultra-processed food consumption is associated with worsening of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with metabolic syndrome: Longitudinal analysis from a randomized trial

the PREDIMED-PLUS Trial investigators

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Background and aims: The association between changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) factors remains understudied. We evaluated the association between changes in UPF consumption over 12 months of follow-up and changes in CMR factors in adults diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.Methods: We analysed data from 5373 adults (aged 55-75 years) participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Diet was evaluated at baseline, 6-and 12-month visits using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and UPF consumption (in grams/day and percentage of total daily dietary intake in grams) was categorized based on NOVA classification. We used mixed-effects linear models with repeated measurements at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up to assess the associations between changes in UPF consumption and changes in CMR factors adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyles variables.Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, when comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of UPF con-sumption, positive associations were found for several CMR factors: weight (kg, & beta; = 1.09; 95% confidence in-terval 0.91 to 1.26); BMI (kg/m2, & beta; = 0.39; 0.33 to 0.46); waist circumference (cm, & beta; = 1.03; 0.81 to 1.26); diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg, & beta; = 0.67; 0.29 to 1.06); fasting blood glucose (mg/dl, & beta; = 1.66; 0.61 to 2.70); HbA1c (%, & beta; = 0.04; 0.01 to 0.07); triglycerides (mg/dl, & beta; = 6.79; 3.66 to 9.91) and triglycerides and glucose index (& beta; = 0.06; 0.04 to 0.08).Conclusions: Higher UPF consumption was associated with adverse evolution in objectively measured CMR factors after 12 months of follow-up in adults with metabolic syndrome. Further research is needed to explore whether these changes persist for longer periods.
Idioma originalAnglès
Pàgines (de-a)12-23
Nombre de pàgines12
RevistaAtherosclerosis
Volum377
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 7 de juny 2023

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