Effects of Achieving Rapid, Intensive, and Sustained Blood Pressure Reduction in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion and Functional Outcome

RAINS Study Group

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The time taken to achieve blood pressure (BP) control could be pivotal in the benefits of reducing BP in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to assess the relationship between the rapid achievement and sustained maintenance of an intensive systolic BP (SBP) target with radiologic, clinical, and functional outcomes. METHODS: Rapid, Intensive, and Sustained BP lowering in Acute ICH (RAINS) was a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of adult patients with ICH <6 hours and SBP ≥150 mm Hg at 4 Comprehensive Stroke Centers during a 4.5-year period. Patients underwent baseline and 24-hour CT scans and 24-hour noninvasive BP monitoring. BP was managed under a rapid (target achievement ≤60 minutes), intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg), and sustained (target stability for 24 hours) BP protocol. SBP target achievement ≤60 minutes and 24-hour SBP variability were recorded. Outcomes included hematoma expansion (>6 mL or >33%) at 24 hours (primary outcome), early neurologic deterioration (END, 24-hour increase in NIH Stroke Scale score ≥4), and 90-day ordinal modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. Analyses were adjusted by age, sex, anticoagulation, onset-to-imaging time, ICH volume, and intraventricular extension. RESULTS: We included 312 patients (mean age 70.2 ± 13.3 years, 202 [64.7%] male). Hematoma expansion occurred in 70/274 (25.6%) patients, END in 58/291 (19.9%), and the median 90-day mRS score was 4 (interquartile range, 2-5). SBP target achievement ≤60 minutes (178/312 [57.1%]) associated with a lower risk of hematoma expansion (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.77), lower END rate (aOR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.80), and lower 90-day mRS scores (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32-0.74). The mean 24-hour SBP variability was 21.0 ± 7.6 mm Hg. Higher 24-hour SBP variability was not related to expansion (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.04) but associated with higher END rate (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21) and 90-day mRS scores (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.10). DISCUSSION: Among patients with acute ICH, achieving an intensive SBP target within 60 minutes was associated with lower hematoma expansion risk. Rapid SBP reduction and stable sustention within 24 hours were related to improved clinical and functional outcomes. These findings warrant the design of randomized clinical trials examining the impact of effectively achieving rapid, intensive, and sustained BP control on hematoma expansion. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that in adults with spontaneous ICH and initial SBP ≥150 mm Hg, lowering SBP to <140 mm Hg within the first hour and maintaining this for 24 hours is associated with decreased hematoma expansion.

Idioma originalAnglès
Pàgines (de-a)e209244
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 14 de maig 2024
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