This work describes the development of a three-dimensional (3D) model of osteogenesis using mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and a soft synthetic matrix made out of self-assembling peptide nanofibers. By adjusting the matrix stiffness to very low values (around 120 Pa), cells were found to migrate within the matrix, interact forming a cell-cell network, and create a contracted and stiffer structure. Interestingly, during this process, cells spontaneously upregulate the expression of bone-related proteins such as collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, indicating that the 3D environment enhances their osteogenic potential. However, unlike MC3T3-E1 cultures in 2D, the addition of dexamethasone is required to acquire a final mature phenotype characterized by features such as matrix mineralization. Moreover, a slight increase in the hydrogel stiffness (threefold) or the addition of a cell contractility inhibitor (Rho kinase inhibitor) abrogates cell elongation, migration, and 3D culture contraction. However, this mechanical inhibition does not seem to noticeably affect the osteogenic process, at least at early culture times. This 3D bone model intends to emphasize cell-cell interactions, which have a critical role during tissue formation, by using a compliant unrestricted synthetic matrix.